199.What does” Pseudo Table” Locks mean in EXPLAIN Plan in Teradata?
- It is a false lock which is applied on the table to prevent two users from getting conflicting locks with all-AMP requests.
- PE will determine an particular AMP to manage all AMP LOCK requests for given table and Put Pseudo lock on the table.
- Pseudo tables are the dummy tables, Whenever we place a request which involves full table scan and needs data to be retrieved from all AMPS then the parsing engine identifies a gatekeeper AMP which can command all other AMP to lock for a particular request from the user and does not allow multiple user to access the same table to prevent global deadlock.
200.How do you whether table is locked or not?
Just run the following query on the table.
Lock Table DBNAME.TABLENAME write nowait
Select * from DBNAME.TABLENAME;
If this table is locked currently then , then the above statement would fail as Nowait will not wait for locks to be released on that table .
201.How can you apply access lock on table rather than read lock?
We can override default read lock on any table by explicitly mentioning the ACCESS LOCK before using the table.
LOCK TABLE EMPLOYEES FOR ACCESS SELECT * FROM EMPLOYEES;
202.What are different type of locks in teradata ?
In Teradata , LOCKS are used to maintain integrity of data present in the tables. Teradata , itself decides the kind of lock to implement however in some cases users can also decide what kind of lock, the query should use.
In TERADATA, locks can be implemented at three levels:
DATABASE , TABLE and ROW HASH.
And there are 4 types of LOCKS available in TERADATA:
1) Exclusive: Such LOCKS are applied on a table when it is undergoing any STRUCTURAL change. All DDL commands apply this LOCK. If this lock is applied then no other locks can be applied on that table.
2) Write: Such LOCKS are applied when any tables data demography changes by either DELETE,INSERT or UPDATE operation on it. So whenever a DML operation is performed on the table , such locks are applied. Only ACCESS locks are permissible when WRITE locks are applied on the table. And ACCESS Locks may lead to STALE DATA READ from the table since data demography would be changed by DML operations holding WRITE LOCKS.
3)READ: Such LOCKS are applied when user tries to READ data from the table and don’t want to fetch STALE DATA. READ locks maintains the data integrity as the DATA in the tables cannot be modified while READ LOCK is applied on the tables. READ LOCK only allow READ or ACCESS LOCK on the table. READ Locks are the default lock used by Teradata while fetching data from any Table.
4)ACCESS: Such locks are applied when table needs to be accessed and the data demographics is not that important; even stale data is ok for the process. ACCESS LOCKS allows READ, WRITE or ACCESS Locks to be applied on the table. However EXCLUSIVE locks are not allowed.
Tips It can be considered as a good practice to apply ACCESS locks on the source table when multiple SQL Queries are using same Source Table. Even if the TARGET table is different still it can lead to bad performance as by default TERADATA applied READ lock so other queries may have to wait to change the demography in SOURCE table. Understanding LOCKS and LOCKING table manually can be very useful in an environment where several tables are loaded parallely. Teradata automatically blocks the query trying to apply incompatible LOCK on the table already locked by some other query. You can use below command before your actual DML commands:
LOCKING SOURCE_TABLE FOR ACCESS INSERT INTO TARGET_TABLE SELECT * FROM SOURCE_TABLE; The other good practice is to use PRIMARY INDEX column while fetching data from SOURCE table. In such cases, the query becomes an AMP operation and Teradata applies lock at ROW HASH level and not at Table level.
203. What is the particular designated level at which a LOCK is liable to be applied in Teradata?
- Table Level – All the rows that are present inside a table will certainly be locked.
- Database Level Lock – All the objects that are present inside the database will be locked.
- Row Hash Level Lock – Only those rows will be locked which are corresponding to the particular row.